Prof John Stark

John Stark

Professor of Aerospace Engineering

School of Engineering and Materials Science


Electrospray technology, Spacecraft propulsion, Spacecraft Design, Direct printing


Publications of specific relevance to


Xia HH, Ismail A, Yao J and Stark J (2019). Scaling Laws for Transition from Varicose to Whipping Instabilities in Electrohydrodynamic Jetting. American Physical Society (Aps)  Physical Review Applied  vol. 12, (1) 10.1103/physrevapplied.12.014031


ISMAIL AS, YAO J, XIA HH and STARK J (2018). Breakup length of electrified liquid jets: Scaling laws and applications. American Physical Society  Physical Review Applied  10.1103/PhysRevApplied.10.064010


Dandavino S, Ataman C, Ryan CN, Chakraborty S, Courtney D, Stark JPW and Shea H (2014). Microfabricated electrospray emitter arrays with integrated extractor and accelerator electrodes for the propulsion of small spacecraft. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering  vol. 24, (7) 10.1088/0960-1317/24/7/075011
Wang K and Stark J (2014). Dispersion of nano-Au suspension using novel pulsed jet nanoelectrospraying approach. Materials Letters  vol. 123, 120-123. 10.1016/j.matlet.2014.03.016
Ryan CN, Smith KL and Stark JPW (2014). The flow rate sensitivity to voltage across four electrospray modes. Applied Physics Letters  vol. 104, (8) 10.1063/1.4866670
Stark JPW, Alexander MS and Smith KL (2014). Electrospray pulsation: A diagnostic to understand cone-jet stability and minimum flow. Journal of Applied Physics  vol. 115, (4) 10.1063/1.4862805


Ryan CN, Smith KL and Stark JPW (2012). The influence of geometry on the flow rate sensitivity to applied voltage within cone-jet mode electrospray. Journal of Applied Physics  vol. 112, (11) 10.1063/1.4768451
Ryan CN, Smith KL and Stark JPW (2012). Characterization of multi-jet electrospray systems. Journal of Aerosol Science  vol. 51, 35-48. 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2012.03.007
Wang K and Stark JPW (2012). Direct fabrication and morphology of metallic micropatterns by pulsed jet nanoelectrospraying of silver nano-ink. Journal of Coatings Technology and Research  vol. 9, (3) 317-322. 10.1007/s11998-011-9370-x


Wang K and Stark J (2011). Nozzle size effects on the nanoelectrospraying of Au nanocolloid in a fully voltage-controlled form. Sensors and Actuators, a: Physical  vol. 165, (2) 338-341. 10.1016/j.sna.2010.10.014


Martyn SV, Heywood HK, Rockett P, Paine MD, Wang MJ, Dobson PJ, Sheard SJ, Lee DA and Stark JPW (2010). Electrospray deposited fibronectin retains the ability to promote cell adhesion. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials  vol. 96B, (1) 110-118. 10.1002/jbm.b.31745
Wang K and Stark JPW (2010). Voltage effects on the nanoelectrospray characteristics in fully voltage-controlled atomisation of gold nanocolloids. Anal Chim Acta  vol. 679, (1-2) 81-84. 10.1016/j.aca.2010.09.005
Wang K, Tan Z, Ryan C, Smith K, Paine M and Stark J (2010). A full voltage-controlled nanoelectrospray system and its steady characteristic analysed by empirically equivalent circuit method. Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical  vol. 147, (2) 618-621. 10.1016/j.snb.2010.03.070
Wang K and Stark JPW (2010). Direct fabrication of electrically functional microstructures by fully voltage-controlled electrohydrodynamic jet printing of silver nano-ink. Appl Phys a-Mater  vol. 99, (4) 763-766. 10.1007/s00339-010-5701-5
Wang K and Stark JPW (2010). Deposition of colloidal gold nanoparticles by fully pulsed-voltage- controlled electrohydrodynamic atomisation. Journal of Nanoparticle Research  vol. 12, (3) 707-711. 10.1007/s11051-009-9825-5
Wang K, Paine MD and Stark JPW (2010). Novel electrohydrodynamic jet-printing of organic silver ink in unforced form. Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, Rapid Communications  vol. 4, (3) 365-368.


Wang K, Paine MD and Stark JPW (2009). Freeform fabrication of metallic patterns by unforced electrohydrodynamic jet printing of organic silver ink. J Mater Sci-Mater El  vol. 20, (11) 1154-1157. 10.1007/s10854-008-9843-6
Ryan CN, Smith KL, Alexander MS and Stark JPW (2009). Effect of emitter geometry on flow rate sensitivity to voltage in cone jet mode electrospray. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics  vol. 42, (15) 10.1088/0022-3727/42/15/155504
Wang K, Paine MD and Stark JPW (2009). Fully voltage-controlled electrohydrodynamic jet printing of conductive silver tracks with a sub- 100 ?m linewidth. Journal of Applied Physics  vol. 106, (2) 10.1063/1.3176952
Krpoun R, Smith KL, Stark JPW and Shea HR (2009). Tailoring the hydraulic impedance of out-of-plane micromachined electrospray sources with integrated electrodes. Applied Physics Letters  vol. 94, (16) 10.1063/1.3117191


Aplin KL, Smith KL, Firth JG, Kent BJ, Alexander MS and Stark JPW (2008). Inexpensive optically isolated nanoammeter for use with micro-Newton electric propulsion technology. Journal of Propulsion and Power  vol. 24, (4) 891-895. 10.2514/1.30994


Wang L, Stevens R, Malik A, Rockett P, Paine M, Adkin P, Martyn S, Smith K, Stark J and Dobson P (2007). High-aspect-ratio silica nozzle fabrication for nano-emitter electrospray applications. Microelectronic Engineering  vol. 84, (5-8) 1190-1193. 10.1016/j.mee.2007.01.116
Wu JP and Stark JPW (2007). A high accuracy technique to measure the electrical conductivity of liquids using small test samples. J Appl Phys  vol. 101, (5) 10.1063/1.2709573
Alexander MS, Smith KL, Paine MD and Stark JPW (2007). Voltage-modulated flow rate for precise thrust control in colloid electrospray propulsion. Journal of Propulsion and Power  vol. 23, (5) 1042-1048. 10.2514/1.25309
Paine MD, Alexander MS, Smith KL, Wang M and Stark JPW (2007). Controlled electrospray pulsation for┬ádeposition of femtoliter fluid droplets onto surfaces. Journal of Aerosol Science  vol. 38, (3) 315-324. 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2006.12.004
Paine MD, Alexander MS and Stark JPW (2007). Nozzle and liquid effects on the spray modes in nanoelectrospray. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science  vol. 305, (1) 111-123. 10.1016/j.jcis.2006.09.031


Wu JP, Wang MJ and Stark JPW (2006). Evaluation of band structure and concentration of ionic liquid BMImBF(4) in molecular mixtures by using second derivatives of FTIR spectra. J Quant Spectrosc Ra  vol. 102, (2) 228-235. 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2006.02.009
Smith KL, Alexander MS and Stark JPW (2006). The role of molar conductivity in electrospray cone-jet mode current scaling. Journal of Applied Physics  vol. 100, (1) 10.1063/1.2210169
Alexander MS, Stark J, Smith KL, Stevens B and Kent B (2006). Electrospray performance of microfabricated colloid thruster arrays. J Propul Power  vol. 22, (3) 620-627. 10.2514/1.15190
Alexander MS, Paine MD and Stark JPW (2006). Pulsation modes and the effect of applied voltage on current and flow rate in nanoelectrospray. Analytical Chemistry  vol. 78, (8) 2658-2664. 10.1021/ac0520036
Smith KL, Alexander MS and Stark JPW (2006). Voltage effects on the volumetric flow rate in cone-jet mode electrospraying. Journal of Applied Physics  vol. 99, (6) 10.1063/1.2183351
Wu JP and Stark JPW (2006). Measurement of low frequency relative permittivity of room temperature molten salts by triangular waveform voltage. Meas Sci Technol  vol. 17, (4) 781-788. 10.1088/0957-0233/17/4/024
Smith KL, Alexander MS and Stark JPW (2006). The sensitivity of volumetric flow rate to applied voltage in cone-jet mode electrospray and the influence of solution properties and emitter geometry. Physics of Fluids  vol. 18, (9) 10.1063/1.2354437


Wang MJ, Heywood HK, Bader DL, Paine MD, Stark JPW and Lee DA (2005). Identification and characterization of deposited fibronectin on biocompatible materials: Comparison of electrospray and wetting methods. Proceedings of The 2005 Summer Bioengineering Conference  vol. 2005, 439-440.
Stark J, Stevens B, Alexander M and Kent B (2005). Fabrication and operation of microfabricated emitters as components for a colloid thruster. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets  vol. 42, (4) 628-639. 10.2514/1.7537
Wu JP and Stark JPW (2005). A low-cost approach for measuring electrical conductivity and relative permittivity of liquids by triangular waveform voltage at low frequencies. Meas Sci Technol  vol. 16, (5) 1234-1240. 10.1088/0957-0233/16/5/025


Smith KL and Stark JPW (2004). Spray current dependence on flow rate and conductivity in cone-jet mode vacuum spraying. Institute of Physics Conference Series  vol. 178, 161-166.
Paine MD and Stark JPW (2004). Controlled electrospray for tissue engineering applications. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 860, 67-72. 10.1557/proc-860-ll5.6


STARK JPW, Swinerd GS and Fortsecue P (2003). Spacecraft Systems Engineering. 3rd Edition. Wiley International 


Alves N and Stark J (2002). The direct simulation Monte Carlo of flows composed of asymmetric potential scatterers. Phys Fluids  vol. 14, (4) 1403-1413. 10.1063/1.1458002
STARK JPW and Alves N (2002). Simulation of a Couette flow in a fluid composed of asymmetric potential scatters. Physics of Fluids  vol. 14, 1403-1413.
STARK JPW and Miao J (2002). Investigation of hypervelocity impacts on retrieved surfaces by DSMC. Space Debris  vol. 2, 109-121.


Miao JQ and Stark JPW (2001). Direct simulation of meteoroids and space debris flux on LDEF spacecraft surfaces. Planet Space Sci  vol. 49, (9) 927-935. 10.1016/S0032-0633(01)00042-3
Miao JQ and Stark JPW (2001). Direct simulation of apex enhancement on the flux onto European retrievable carrier. J Spacecraft Rockets  vol. 38, (4) 594-600. 10.2514/2.3722
Stark JPW (2001). Evolution of debris clouds to microscopically chaotic motion. J Spacecraft Rockets  vol. 38, (4) 554-562. 10.2514/2.3716


Wang LQ and Stark JPW (1999). Direct simulation of space debris evolution. J Spacecraft Rockets  vol. 36, (1) 114-123. 10.2514/2.3423


Wang LQ and Stark JPW (1997). DSMC space debris simulation and comparison with LDEF impact experiments. European Space Agency, (Special Publication) Esa Sp  (393) 333-338.
Wang L, Stark JPW and Crowther R (1997). Direct Monte-Carlo simulation of collision frequency of orbital debris. Science and Technology Series  vol. 93, 233-249.